Strict laws in the US have forced Google to rethink how it develops autonomous car technology in the future
29 August 2016

The much-hyped self-driving Google Car may have reached the end of the road, with its technology boss Chris Urmson, who led the project for seven years, resigning at the beginning of August.

The departure comes amid a move from Google to team up with the automotive industry, rather than challenge it, in the race for autonomy.

Read the latest on Google's Waymo self-driving cars project here

According to a note sent out by auto analysts at investment bank Evercore ISI, the Google car project was clearly in trouble. “The Google driverless project is likely not as advanced as many believe,” it said.

Speaking at Austin’s Southby-Southwest conference earlier this year about the timing of the project, Urmson said: “How quickly can we get this into people’s hands? If you read the papers, you see maybe it’s three years, maybe it’s 30 years. And I am here to tell you that honestly, it’s a bit of both.”

Perhaps one of the reasons for Urmson’s exit was the Google Car project’s philosophical U-turn performed last September, with the hiring of ex-Hyundai US boss John Krafcik as CEO of the Google self-driving project. Google has also just signed a deal with Fiat-Chrysler to build autonomous prototypes based on the company’s Chrysler Pacifica MPV, all of which suggests that any idea that Google would put its own self-driving cars into production now looks increasingly unlikely.

Perhaps such a tie-up with the car industry was inevitable. Despite the time spent on testing and development, the Google self-driving cars had covered a relatively modest 1.7m miles as of this summer. In stark contrast, Tesla claimed that, by May this year, drivers of its cars had clocked up 100 million miles with the Autopilot function engaged. While this is nowhere near the same as the intended full autonomy of the Google cars, it shows the huge disadvantage of trying to jump straight to a fully autonomous car from experimental vehicles.

Furthermore, not only do the Google cars have a selfimposed 25mph top speed, it took until 2011 for fully autonomous testing on public roads to become legal in the US, when Nevada changed its local laws. California — Google’s home state — didn’t change the law until this year. It is still only legal in four states.

However, California’s regulations contained one crucial clause, which could well have sunk the Google Car for good. Under Article 3.7, paragraph 227.18 of the order, it states: “A manufacturer shall not permit any of its autonomous vehicles to be operated on public roads in California when the operator is not seated in the driver’s seat and either monitoring its operations and able to take over physical control of the vehicle, or in physical control of the vehicle.”

The requirement for autonomous vehicles to have a conventional steering wheel and brake pedals was a major setback for a stand-alone Google car. It’s understood that Urmson was involved in political lobbying to try to get this clause rescinded. His departure makes this unlikely, especially as major car manufacturers are already testing conventional cars fitted with autonomous tech, such as Audi’s A5 and A7 prototypes.

But despite these departures and legislative hurdles, the Google project remains committed to seeing true self-serving vehicles, according to a recent Bloomberg interview with new project boss Krafcik.

He highlighted the recent fatal accident involving a Tesla driver using the Autopilot function as an example of the problems with what’s known as ‘level two’ autonomy.

Krafcik revealed that Google tested this combination of radar cruise control and lane keep assist in 2012 and found that its drivers started to zone out and even started texting or “reaching into the rear seats”.

Krafcik says he remains convinced that full level four autonomy, “which is our focus at Google”, is still the best outcome. He also referenced the onerous new Californian regulations, which would require the driver of a future autonomous vehicle to have a second driving licence for operating a self-driving vehicle, something he says he’s against. Krafcik said that Google’s deal with Fiat Chrysler Automobiles calls for 100 autonomous Pacifica prototypes, “which would double our test fleet”.

Tellingly, he also admits that building a car is a significant hurdle. “Google realised that it’s really hard to build a car,” he said. “We built the little prototype that gave us a taste of the complexity.”

So, while the stand-alone Google Car may be dead, the project to embed Google self-driving technology into future models from mass car makers clearly isn’t.

Google autonomous vehicle crash - are we ready for self-driving cars?

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Are Google Maps good enough? 

Another big issue for the Google Car project is whether Google’s own mapping base can be used for autonomous driving. Many in the industry say it can’t, which is why the HERE mapping division was bought from Nokia by Daimler, Audi and BMW.

Google maps are, in effect, a kind of electronic 2D A-Z map. A device running the maps application relies on GPS satellites to ‘dead reckon’ its position on the road. This isn’t easy, because the civilian GPS network is accurate to only 15 metres.

Although the system has been honed to work very well as a conventional navigation set-up, it is nowhere near intelligent enough to be used for autonomous driving. It cannot place the car on the road with anything like the required accuracy and it cannot work with forward-facing cameras to read the road ahead, identifying potential immobile obstacles such as roadworks and temporary traffic lights. That’s why the Google test car were equipped with Lidar — a kind of laser-based radar system — for reading the road ahead in 3D.

The HERE mapping network is a huge step forward over Google maps. The company has used Lidar to map most of western Europe as a kind of 3D ‘cave’. Not only are the roads mapped, but also the pavements and building frontages. Once a HERE-equipped car is inside this ‘cave’, it can be positioned to an accuracy of just 10cm — ideal for autonomy.

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Comments
11

29 August 2016
How in heaven's sake Google could have expected not to be needing a steering wheel, as long as the self-driving technology is not in a far more advanced state? American authorities have really proven themselves. The EPA in VW's dieselgate affair (mind you, whereas the EU was lobbied not to!) and now the NHTSA regarding self-driving vehicles.

29 August 2016
Yes Voyager but what I find odd is that the US doesn't have the equivalent of an MOT test. You won't believe some of the junkers that are still being driven. The funniest are non-monocoque vehicles eg trucks that have clearly been in an accident and the chassis hasn't been properly straitened, so it drives down the road at a bit of an angle.

29 August 2016
Yes Voyager but what I find odd is that the US doesn't have the equivalent of an MOT test. You won't believe some of the junkers that are still being driven. The funniest are non-monocoque vehicles eg trucks that have clearly been in an accident and the chassis hasn't been properly straitened, so it drives down the road at a bit of an angle.

29 August 2016
I do hope so, should anyone really want to be ferried around in a vehicle that resembles Mr Blobby then you have to ask the question "Is that individual really safe to be out on the public highway ?"

 Offence can only be taken not given- so give it back!

29 August 2016
Fully autonomous cars are going to have many more hurdles to overcome, not least public acceptance, or otherwise.

Citroëniste.

29 August 2016
The benefits of autonomous cars are enormous.

I was hoping that, by the time I am too old to drive safely, autonomous cars would maintain my mobility. I was hoping that, by the time my children have kids, the roads will be clear of parked cars (replaced by autonomous vehicles that don't spend 22 hours a day not in use) so that they will be able to kick a football around instead. I was hoping that, one day, I will be able to have a few beers after work before the drive home.

Maybe the future is further away than I think.

29 August 2016
And Tesla will realize that when they try to jump to much higher manufacturing numbers and building smaller cars in big numbers with little profit.

Dan

30 August 2016
Going over a cliff with one in, at least there's going to less of this FULL autonomous SH** from now on. How can such intelligent people be so dumb

 

Hydrogen cars just went POP

30 August 2016
“Google realised that it’s really hard to build a car” - Google bloke.

I think the next generation of vehicles will be partly autonomous, with companies like Google providing enormous software input in a vehicle that still looks and feels like a current car and is built by current car companies.

Trying to jump from nothing to fully-autonomous driving is too big a stretch technically and legally. I don't think public acceptance is likely to be a huge issue – if the technology is affordable then people will come at it in droves. Luddites may bemoan robocars but everyone else would happily enjoy a far more relaxed and efficient morning commute. But getting there is proving to be a bigger challenge than the big promoters like Google and Tesla expected.

The Tesla Autopilot system could be replicated by other big manufacturers, as it uses the same hardware already used for adaptive cruise controls, speed limit detectors, AEB and parking sensors all hooked up to the satnav. However, if you drive a Tesla with Autopilot in the UK, you will quickly realise that it struggles with poor road markings, lanes that vary in width, roundabouts, cars that constantly want to jump in front of you because it leaves a larger-than-normal gap in traffic, etc. You end up turning the system on and off constantly because it keeps veering towards the verge if there are no lines for it to monitor.

30 August 2016
Thought not

 

Hydrogen cars just went POP

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