The automotive industry is fully committed to the development of zero-emission cars, but pressure is growing to achieve CO2-neutrality across the entire production and supply process, including production facilities, their networks of suppliers, and the trains, trucks, ships and planes that move components and vehicles.
The industry already acknowledges the issue, with many car makers quoting the quantity of CO2 generated per car during its manufacture. The average figure for the BMW Group, which includes Mini and Rolls-Royce, currently stands at 0.40 tonnes per unit – down by an impressive 39% over the past five years – although the plan is to reduce CO2 output per unit to zero. For Nissan the figure is 0.49 tonnes per unit, for Toyota it is 0.39 tonnes and for Volkswagen a rather less encouraging 0.72 tonnes.
Dr Jury Witschnig, the BMW Group’s head of product sustainability, says having reduced its own production CO2 footprint, the intention now is to “help our suppliers”. Most of the BMW Group’s suppliers have already signed up to such a programme, and Witschnig adds that along with the environmental and social benefits of CO2 reduction comes the further incentive of cost reductions.
Achieving CO2-neutral production is slightly easier with new-build plants. BMW’s latest, opened earlier this year in Mexico, is “unique among car plants for having solar panels built in from the start”, according to Witschnig. The panels contribute towards the factory’s 100% CO2-free energy supply goal that is set to be achieved by next year, and experience from this plant is now being rolled out across the company’s brownfield sites. Volvo, meanwhile, already has one CO2-neutral production plant and plans to achieve the same across its entire network by 2025.
BMW’s CO2-reduction activities are part of a broader environmental initiative. The current one, triggered in 2012, requires water, energy and solvent use and waste material production to drop by 45% next year compared with 2006, while 79% of the group’s energy supply now comes from renewable sources.
Mercedes, meanwhile, aims to make all its plants CO2-neutral by 2022, with the goal that the cars themselves become CO2-neutral by 2039. It is focusing on eco-training for its workforce, saying that will make a significant contribution.
Nissan’s Sustainability 2022 plan indicates that it’s not always easy to hit such targets, in the Japanese maker’s case an 80% reduction in CO2 from corporate activities by 2050 over 2000. The 2.6 million tonnes of CO2 the corporation emitted last year is actually an increase on the 2.4m produced in 2005, but it should be noted that BMW’s energy use also rose last year. The reason, says Witschnig, was the unusually hot summer. Nissan has nevertheless achieved a 33.7% CO2 reduction per vehicle produced since 2005.
Nissan’s alliance partner Renault plans a CO2-per-car full-life-cycle reduction of 25% from 2010 to 2022. The French firm’s flagship eco-factory is in Morocco, where its Dacia plant draws on renewable energy supplied by an innovative biomass heating plant fuelled by olive pits and wood, the ash by-product from which is then used for agriculture.