Currently reading: Analysis: How car production will become CO2-neutral
Amid the push towards clean EVs, car makers target emission-free manufacturing
Richard Bremner Autocar
News
3 mins read
19 September 2019

The automotive industry is fully committed to the development of zero-emission cars, but pressure is growing to achieve CO2-neutrality across the entire production and supply process, including production facilities, their networks of suppliers, and the trains, trucks, ships and planes that move components and vehicles. 

The industry already acknowledges the issue, with many car makers quoting the quantity of CO2 generated per car during its manufacture. The average figure for the BMW Group, which includes Mini and Rolls-Royce, currently stands at 0.40 tonnes per unit – down by an impressive 39% over the past five years – although the plan is to reduce CO2 output per unit to zero. For Nissan the figure is 0.49 tonnes per unit, for Toyota it is 0.39 tonnes and for Volkswagen a rather less encouraging 0.72 tonnes. 

Dr Jury Witschnig, the BMW Group’s head of product sustainability, says having reduced its own production CO2 footprint, the intention now is to “help our suppliers”. Most of the BMW Group’s suppliers have already signed up to such a programme, and Witschnig adds that along with the environmental and social benefits of CO2 reduction comes the further incentive of cost reductions. 

Achieving CO2-neutral production is slightly easier with new-build plants. BMW’s latest, opened earlier this year in Mexico, is “unique among car plants for having solar panels built in from the start”, according to Witschnig. The panels contribute towards the factory’s 100% CO2-free energy supply goal that is set to be achieved by next year, and experience from this plant is now being rolled out across the company’s brownfield sites. Volvo, meanwhile, already has one CO2-neutral production plant and plans to achieve the same across its entire network by 2025. 

BMW’s CO2-reduction activities are part of a broader environmental initiative. The current one, triggered in 2012, requires water, energy and solvent use and waste material production to drop by 45% next year compared with 2006, while 79% of the group’s energy supply now comes from renewable sources. 

Mercedes, meanwhile, aims to make all its plants CO2-neutral by 2022, with the goal that the cars themselves become CO2-neutral by 2039. It is focusing on eco-training for its workforce, saying that will make a significant contribution. 

Nissan’s Sustainability 2022 plan indicates that it’s not always easy to hit such targets, in the Japanese maker’s case an 80% reduction in CO2 from corporate activities by 2050 over 2000. The 2.6 million tonnes of CO2 the corporation emitted last year is actually an increase on the 2.4m produced in 2005, but it should be noted that BMW’s energy use also rose last year. The reason, says Witschnig, was the unusually hot summer. Nissan has nevertheless achieved a 33.7% CO2 reduction per vehicle produced since 2005. 

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Nissan’s alliance partner Renault plans a CO2-per-car full-life-cycle reduction of 25% from 2010 to 2022. The French firm’s flagship eco-factory is in Morocco, where its Dacia plant draws on renewable energy supplied by an innovative biomass heating plant fuelled by olive pits and wood, the ash by-product from which is then used for agriculture. 

Such innovations will undoubtedly continue, but the industry faces a new challenge: to reduce the sizeable CO2 footprint produced by the batteries used to power supposedly emission-free EVs. 

For this reason, car makers increasingly talk of well-to-wheel CO2 footprints. By way of example, a VW e-Golf needs to be driven 77,000 miles before its CO2 footprint is lower than that of a diesel Golf, while BMW says a 42kWh i3’s advantage versus a BMW 118d “is 15% over the whole cycle of sourcing materials, supply chains, production (including the battery), usage period and recycling when charged with EU-average electricity”. The firm adds that the figure is “almost 50% less” if the i3 is charged with green electricity during its usage period. Despite the dramatic improvement when using renewables, the need to reduce the CO2 impact of battery manufacture remains a pressing issue. 

When the impact of component production, transportation logistics and all of the associated activities required to make, distribute and sell a car are taken into account, there remains plenty of scope for reducing the 0.7 to 0.4 tonnes of CO2 emitted during a vehicle’s production.

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8

19 September 2019

I'm sure that all the figures quoted are for car production, or assembly. they are probably just a fraction of the all inclusive CO2 figures for the total manufacturing process including production and transportation of the thousands of constituant parts. I don't doubt that the manufacturers have made some progress, but I suspect this is a lot of greenwash to hide the real environmental cost of car manufacturing.  But then the industry has already shown itself to be pretty good at cheating, so what do we expect? 

19 September 2019
LP in Brighton wrote:

I'm sure that all the figures quoted are for car production, or assembly. they are probably just a fraction of the all inclusive CO2 figures for the total manufacturing process including production and transportation of the thousands of constituant parts. I don't doubt that the manufacturers have made some progress, but I suspect this is a lot of greenwash to hide the real environmental cost of car manufacturing.  But then the industry has already shown itself to be pretty good at cheating, so what do we expect? 

CO2 intensive production processes are a problem everywhere - but least in automotive as they've had such a laser focus on CO2 reduction for such a long period.

The major concern has to be the damage sourcing lithium is doing to the planet, sourcing requiring ever more CO2 as we have to keep digging deeper - because it's a substantially limited resource on earth.

.

Production CO2-wise, the biggest sins are actually in the fashion and electronics industries. 

Apple have one of the largest footprints, due to their making devices obsolete every 6-months needlessly.

Consumers are the enablers of these companies - and the ones that need to change.

19 September 2019
Well, then, your recent e-SUV mega-test had the Jag iPace at 2.5 miles per kWh.
UK electric is very largely generated from gas at 500gCO2 per kWh.
That Jag result works out at 125gCO2 per km.
Good, but no way low carbon. My diesel Merc averages The same result, with none of the other carry-on.

19 September 2019
Ivor Parker wrote:

Well, then, your recent e-SUV mega-test had the Jag iPace at 2.5 miles per kWh. UK electric is very largely generated from gas at 500gCO2 per kWh. That Jag result works out at 125gCO2 per km. Good, but no way low carbon. My diesel Merc averages The same result, with none of the other carry-on.

Natural gas comprises 41% of the grid; 52% of it is renewable and nuclear which have near-zero carbon intensity. The UK's average electricity CO2 is 208 grams per kWh, with a 12.442% transmission loss.

So an I-Pace's average emissions, at 2.5 miles per kWh, are 58 g/km. When you include the upstream factors of diesel production (for a total 3.167kg CO2/litre according to Defra), that's equivalent to 154 mpg.

19 September 2019
Vertigo wrote:

Ivor Parker wrote:

Well, then, your recent e-SUV mega-test had the Jag iPace at 2.5 miles per kWh. UK electric is very largely generated from gas at 500gCO2 per kWh. That Jag result works out at 125gCO2 per km. Good, but no way low carbon. My diesel Merc averages The same result, with none of the other carry-on.

Natural gas comprises 41% of the grid; 52% of it is renewable and nuclear which have near-zero carbon intensity. The UK's average electricity CO2 is 208 grams per kWh, with a 12.442% transmission loss.

So an I-Pace's average emissions, at 2.5 miles per kWh, are 58 g/km. When you include the upstream factors of diesel production (for a total 3.167kg CO2/litre according to Defra), that's equivalent to 154 mpg.

Great points well made. And 80% of Teslas and all LEAFS are more efficient then IPaces.

Plus you need to factor in more power comes from wind and solar every year, and, countries like France are 70% nuclear, Norway 100% green etc. 

19 September 2019

I wonder what the real figures are?

19 September 2019

might actually be outlawed by then or before if things carry on the way they are, and a certain manufacturers greed for profit above all else and market share is the main reason. Thats why we have WLTP  and all the rest of it. I noticed that they feature last in line when reading the article basically they've sunk the car industry as far as I am concerned. To busy making fancy cars for superhero movies.

19 September 2019

Some dubious figures there. I've read quite a few lifecycle analyses, and they generally peg car manufacturing CO2 at 7-10 tonnes CO2; potentially 20+ for a luxury SUV. That's more than an order of magnitude higher than what's being reported here. I know a lot of emissions can be avoided just by running the factory on renewable energy - but a) as far as I know most factories still aren't renewable-powered, and b) surely that can't result in a 95% reduction in total manufacturing CO2.

And on the flipside, the EV CO2 claims look weirdly high. According to Ford and LG Chem's lifecycle analysis of the Focus Electric in 2016, EV manufacturing adds 39% to the car's pre-use-phase emissions (3.4 tonnes higher than the standard Focus' 8.7 tonnes). 3.4 tonnes is equivalent to driving 11.8k miles in a 50mpg diesel. On the British electrical grid, at 300Wh/mile, the EV should have the smaller carbon footprint after 17,804 miles.

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