Currently reading: John O’Groats to Land’s End in a hydrogen fuel cell car
The hydrogen fuel cell Toyota Mirai could be the future, but how does it fare on British roads today?
Richard Bremner Autocar
11 mins read
10 July 2020

In Orkney, so much electricity is generated by wind, waves and the power of tides that the islands struggle to find a use for it all.

In theory, it could be transferred to mainland Scotland, except that the seabed cable required to achieve this would apparently cost around £250 million. So instead, some of this surplus electricity is used to split water into its constituent parts, the hydrogen element stored in pressurised gas canisters and ferried to Kirkwall, the capital of Orkney. Once there, the hydrogen is used to produce... electricity.

If that sounds rather a wasteful thing to do, well, welcome to the world of energy generation, and the awkward challenge of storing and transporting that energy to the place you want it, at the time you want it.

What has this got to do with driving a fuel cell Toyota Mirai from John O’Groats to Land’s End? A lot more than you might think, and in ways that may eventually affect not only the way that your car is propelled, but also how your house is heated too.

The way to look at a fuel cell electric car, explains Jon Hunt, Toyota GB’s alternative fuels manager, is to see it as one component within a cycle of future energy generation and usage. Fuelling a car – and your house, heating and hi-fi – is going to get a lot more complex than an energy company piping volts to your junction box. Instead, it’s going to become a world of give and take, of energy generated by a mix of intermittent renewables and less desirable, but reliable, fossil fuels.

But enough, for now, of the potential energy cycles of tomorrow. Right now, our task is to drive the 230-odd miles from John O’Groats to Aberdeen. Not usually a problem with a conventional car, of course, or even a pure electric car if you plan some recharging stops, but in a fuel cell car, the challenge lies in the fact that there are presently only nine hydrogen refuelling stations in the UK.


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There will be 16 by the end of the year, but that’s of little help to us now, which is why we are specifically heading for Aberdeen, where there is a brand-new hydrogen fuel station. The Mirai will travel a hell of a lot further than the often mythical 100 miles of small electric cars – its not-quite-full hydrogen tanks contain enough to carry us 198 miles, according to the trip computer. Which is a pity, because the first leg is 230 miles.

So it looks like we’ll be heading south slowly, though not unknowingly, with the Mirai’s trip computer providing real-time updates of our hydrogen consumption and range.

This is automotive on-board data with a difference, the units of measurement being kilograms of hydrogen used per hundred kilometres rather than mpg. The Mirai’s twin tanks (there are two of these carbonfibre, glassfibre-encased cylinders solely for packaging reasons) hold 5kg at a pressure of 10,000psi, or 700 bar. A supply of 5kg doesn’t sound much, and alarmingly less when the screen read-out tells us that we’re getting through it at the rate of 2.5kg per 100km. But Hunt tells us that the high initial reading is partly because of the difficulty of measuring the consumption of a fuel that tends to careen in multiple directions rather than consistently flow like petrol.

Just a few ginger miles into our trip, consumption halves to 1.2kg/km. But to have a chance of eking out our hydrogen reserves to 230 miles, I’ll have to score a running average of 0.9kg or less, warns Hunt. So we’ll be holding up traffic shortly.

There’s little of it about at first, though. We amble along at 50mph or so, enjoying the Mirai’s boldly individual dashboard. There’s much staring at the consumption read-out, of course, but also the swooping edges and hard corners of the infotainment display and the centre console. It’s not an especially beautiful piece of sculpture, this dashboard, but it’s interestingly busy, rather like the Mirai’s oxygen-gulping, air-cleaving body, which is now occasionally being impeded by traffic. More often, though, it’s the other way around: the desire to go slowly and conserve our hydrogen supplies (now that sounds like a phrase of the future) is still strong despite a consumption rate that has fallen to the desired 0.9kg per 100km.

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Soon will come hills, however, in the undulating and picturesque form of the Cairngorms. Why climb when we could travel more flatly closer to the coast? Because it should be quieter, and because theM1, when it comes, will be a long and dull contrast. To improve our economising, snapper Luc Lacey joins the back-up Land Cruiser with all his kit to reduce the Mirai’s load, and I run with the air conditioner off, which is more of a sacrifice than it might sound on this sunny day in spring-like Scotland. The Cairngorms promise an entertaining challenge – the aim being to avoid heightening the Mirai’s hydrogen appetite despite an assortment of ascents.

With ascents come descents, of course, offering the chance for some fuel saving, and potentially of the exciting kind. Exciting economising? Absolutely, because the aim is to gain as much downhill momentum as you dare and conserve it, ideally with the minimum of braking. Given that there’s an on-board, fuel cell-supplementing, nickel- metal hydride battery pack in regular need of a charge, avoiding the brakes mightseem a surprise because you’d expect to use them to provide regeneration opportunities. However, there’s no scope for regeneration with the Mirai, explains Hunt, because there’s only one motor, andit therefore can’t double as a generator. The brakes are to be avoided, then, within safe reason. Still, when you’re gaining speed down a Cairngorm and trying not to lose it, that can get quite thrilling.

The roads are empty enough to uncover a slightly unexpected and deeply pleasing quality of the Mirai, which is that it will comfortably navigate corners at quite a pace and minimal drama, despite its relatively simple MacPherson strut, torsion beam axle suspension, and a fair bit of heft. One major reason is that it is low-lying heft – its fuel cell, battery and motor packaging providing a low centre of gravity. Another is decent chassis balance. This is no sports saloon, but the Mirai is certainly fleet of low-rolling-resistance foot, besides providing encouragingly precise steering.

All of which makes this section of the trip pretty enjoyable. And to the surprise of several of us, pretty productive on the economy front too, the Mirai’s hunger dropping to 0.6kg per 100 km. Our 80-mile range is now three miles greater than the remaining distance to Aberdeen, and when we get there, that difference has grown to 38 miles. Hunt reckons there’s a reserve beyond that too.

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None of which diminishes the relief of seeing Aberdeen’s shiny new hydrogen refuelling station, this city boldly pushing ahead with the hydrogen fuel cell cause. Like Orkney, Aberdeen has an excessof wind power, as well as a highly skilled workforce available from the now-declining North Sea oil industry. Aberdeen now has the busiest hydrogen fuel station in Europe and, indeed, we are part of the unlikely sight of a queue of refuelling Mirais. It’s impressive to realise that in Aberdeen and Orkney, the hydrogen fuel cell economy is already here.

That there’s still a long way to go is underlined at our next stop in Sunderland on day two, where we replenish the Mirai from a hydrogen-dispensing truck provided by Fuel Cell Systems. The reason that the refuelling takes place at a factory in Tyne and Wear, rather than at a handy truck stop en route, is that there will be a permanent hydrogen fuel station, rooted to the ground, in Sunderland later this year. The factory in question is Haskel, which is developing the sophisticated hydrogen refuelling systems needed to replenish high-pressure hydrogen tanks swiftly and without a pause. This mobile refuelling process took about 10 minutes rather than the four minutes from a permanent fuel station – a delay most users will hopefully be happy to accept for a mobile supply that’s potentially available anywhere and still vastly less time-consuming than recharging an EV.

A facility like this would allow the wanton use of hydrogen, and we are able to be equally wanton on the first leg of day three, to Rotherham, because the distance is easily within the Mirai’s reach. It’s difficult to drive with abandon after husbanding our hydrogen for many hundreds of miles, but this is a good chance to stretch the Mirai’s 152bhp, 247lb ft electric motor, which spins up more strongly than you might expect, providing performance that’s a lot more interesting than eco. Despite which, it’s hard not to scroll through the Mirai’s multiple display screens.

Apart from your current average hydrogen consumption and average speed, you can watch the pulsing power-flow schematic familiar to Prius owners (though it’s less complicated), and view a dated daily record of your distance and consumption. There’s real pleasure in seeing what the Mirai can do, and what you can do with it. Indeed, your own resource-husbanding efforts are assessed by the car itself; my best economy driving, on the rare occasions when I remembered to check the display, scored 84 out of 100 A useful score-improver is to let the electric motor’s in-built creep get you moving before you get accelerating and, more obviously, stay in the econometer’s green zone. These are techniques we will adopt on the final leg of the journey from the Shell hydrogen pump located at Beaconsfield services.

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The reason for deploying every technique is that Land’s End is 276 miles away, which is further than we have been on a full tank, if within the Mirai’s claimed 300-mile range. Once again, we drive like we’re towing a caravan, doubtless triggering similar levels of slow-tow irritation among those in our wake, who are unaware that this displaced air is completely unpolluted by the Toyota in front.

By the time we get to Devon, we look likely to make it. Our cruise rises to a more reasonable 60mph, which drops once we’re travelling between the hedge-walled lanes of Cornwall. Our excitement is replaced by bafflement when we arrive because the famous Land’s End signpost is nowhere to be seen. Turns out that it’s stored for the night by the owner of Britain’s south-west tip, who charges £10 for photographs of the signpost, for which we must wait until tomorrow. Meanwhile, we calculate that we’ve driven 1109 miles, including our travel from Orkney, and that we’ve been behind the wheel for 19 hours and 40 minutes, at a 56mph average speed and a similarly decent 0.9kg of hydrogen per 100km. We used 16.1kg in all, at a cost of £193, working out at 17.9p per mile. We spent 15 minutes refuelling during our four stops and exhausted 14.5 litres of unadulterated water.

During our celebratory photographs the following day, we’re joined by a group of Japanese tourists delighted at our record- setting, and still more so that it was achieved in a Toyota. One day, perhaps, they and us will regularly be driving fuel cell cars. 

The route: 

If you’re driving from John O’Groats to Land’s End the direct way, you don’t go to easterly Aberdeen, even if that’s further south. It’s no more helpful to head to east-coast Sunderland, nor Rotherham or Beaconsfield, even if all are closer to the equator and therefore to Land’s End. But this roundabout route, as you’ll have guessed, was dictated by the availability of hydrogen fuelling stations.

Surf ’N’ turf hydrogen project: 

On Eday, an island in Orkney, there’s so much wind power that they often have to stall the wind turbines, because there’s nowhere for the electricity to go. Which is how the idea of using it to electrolyse water to yield hydrogen came about.

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That hydrogen is pumped into steel canisters and shipped to Kirkwall, the Orkney capital, where it’s turned back into electricity by a room full of fuel cells.

The power is used by ferries docked and reloading at Kirkwall Pier, while the heat generated is used by local buildings.

Aberdeen hydrogen station: 

The once oil-rich Aberdeen has developed a hydrogen strategy in conjunction with many funders and partners including the EU, energy companies, the Scottish Government, the local council, transport operators and car makers.

How Toyota makes the Mirai: 

There’s one powerful reason why the little pilot plant where Toyota’s hand-made, hydrogen-powered Mirai comes to life looks so very much like it could otherwise be building an Aston or a McLaren.

It’s because this same plant that turns out one Mirai every 70 minutes — buried inside Toyota’s giant Motomachi works that started making Crown family saloons in 1959 — was previously the crucible of a run of500 Lexus LFA supercars, using a similar recipe of exotic materials and practising the same principles of hand manufacture.

Toyota started making the Mirai in 2014 and has so far sold around 3000 copies in the US, 1500 in Japan and 200 in Europe. Production is slowly ramping up while opinions continue to vary globally over whether hydrogen fuel cell propulsion can ever be important enough to be viable.

There’s considerable scepticism on our side of the world that contrasts heavily with the view in Japan and Korea that such cars represent an essential step towards the zero- emissions ‘hydrogen society’ seen by many, including Asian governments, as an ultimate objective.

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For now, Mirai manufacture is almost entirely by hand. A tight-knit body of workers uses muscle to push the chassis on trolleys along a tiny production line, adding fascia, powertrain and suspension sub- assemblies hand-made off-line by others. Even operations like the bonding-in of the windscreen, robotised almost everywhere else, are done by hand.

Not that the operation lacks modernity: bodies are painted by the same process used for bigger-volume Motomachi models. Hand-picked technicians wield computer-linked power tools. Work requires constant verification and signing off (though on paper, in actual handwriting). Toyota aims to build the next Mirai on its new, highly flexible TGNA architecture, already configured for a fuel cell version.

For now, the current Mirai’s unique architecture and slow build rate suffice. But Toyota remains adamant that hydrogen cars are heading for practicality and prominence. And having confounded hybrid sceptics by so far putting 10 million Prius family cars on the road, it has earned the right to be confident. 

This article was originally published on 24 June 2018. We're revisiting some of Autocar's most popular features to provide engaging content in these challenging times. 

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24 June 2018
This is for stress addicts only I'm afraid.
No matter which power source we use for cars, the ingredients are usually a finite resource. OK, you could argue that sir is limitless, but the materials used to create the fuel cell aren't. And you have to wonder, if all the vehicles on planet earth were of this type, what effect on the global ecosystem and temperature dynamics would the mass extraction of Hydrogen from the air have. I know we don't need Hydrogen to breathe, but there must be some knock on effect down the line like there is with all other energy generation.

24 June 2018
Cobnapint wrote:

This is for stress addicts only I'm afraid.
No matter which power source we use for cars, the ingredients are usually a finite resource. OK, you could argue that sir is limitless, but the materials used to create the fuel cell aren't. And you have to wonder, if all the vehicles on planet earth were of this type, what effect on the global ecosystem and temperature dynamics would the mass extraction of Hydrogen from the air have. I know we don't need Hydrogen to breathe, but there must be some knock on effect down the line like there is with all other energy generation.

Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe. It seems unlikely that we would impact the amount of hydrogen, especially as it is endlessly reusable. Unlike fossil fuels and other chemical compounds, it can't be broken down and used up. It's already the most basic chemical possible.

24 June 2018
Jason is right, Earth isn't going to run low on hydrogen any time soon. It's sustainable, with a few caveats.

The environmental factors are:

- Manufacturing CO2 is higher than a conventional vehicle, roughly on par with a small-batteried BEV as far as I can tell. Bear in mind though, emissions from the manufacturing phase of any car are tiny compared to the use phase of a combustion engine.

- Fuel cell systems use scarce materials such as platinum, although the content of this is reducing as the tech improves.

- There are two common methods for obtaining hydrogen fuel. One is by extracting methane deposits and reforming them with steam. This has a significant CO2 footprint, which results in a Mirai being similar to a Prius. It also requires fuel to be shipped and raw materials to be mined, so retains many problems of our current infrastructure.

The other method, the one relevant to Orkney, is electrolysis. All you need is water and electricity, so it can be done on-site at the filling station. Another plus is that you can have CO2-free hydrogen if renewable electricity is used. *But*, it uses a hell of a lot of electricity, because the process is so inefficient. This means that a fuel cell vehicle uses three times as much electricity as an electric vehicle....

- A big deal is made out of how "the only emission is water" in FCV marketing, but it's probably worth making a study on whether millions of cars expelling water vapour into the air might itself have a climate effect.

25 June 2018

You forgot all the elements in the battery of a Hydrogen car. + the fact you need 4-5 times the amount of electricity to go the same distance that a BEV can do which is why they give fuel away in the USA as the tiny take-up just wouldn't have happened otherwise. 

24 June 2018

Interesting read. There's just one thing I'm a tad confused with

Richard wrote:

Right now, our task is to drive the 230-odd miles from John O’Groats to Aberdeen.

That brown trouser ride from John O'Groats to Aberdeen Richard - it's great you managed to make it, but I thought your first task would have been to fill the Hydrogen tank(s) at John O'Groats?

So how did you do it? How did you manage to get the Toyota to John O'Groats in the first place?

24 June 2018
Richard wrote:

Aberdeen now has the busiest hydrogen fuel station in Europe and, indeed, we are part of the unlikely sight of a queue of refuelling Mirais.

There's only one other hydrogen fuel station in Scotland (Fife) - i.e. no stations in any other Scottish city and being rather remote, those cars aren't going to travel far from Aberdeen.

Another Autocar atricle says the Mirai costs £66,000 but Toyota expect most of them to be leased - maintenence package costs £750 a month. Hydrogen may well be half the price of petrol but only an Aberdonian oil Sheikh would be able to afford for what is essentially their town car? I can see the argument for buses and local authority vehicles using hydrogen in Aberdeen but Toyota Mirai's? Which promted me to look up Aberdeen city council's website and surprise surprise, those Mirai's you saw belong to Aberdeen City Council.

If I were an Aberdonian council tax payer, I think I'd be a tad annoyed my money being spent or should I say wasted, in this way. The irony that Aberdeen which made it's money thru the oil industry is now throwing away those profits on hydrogen. I'm sure some tree hugger will counterargue that statement, but before they do so, they may wish to re-read the article on how hydrogen is made and then transported. As a fuel source, it's already dead as a dodo.

24 June 2018
Interested in the part about there being a line of Mirais refuelling in Aberdeen.

I'd heard that a hydrogen filling station can only refuel a certain number of cars per hour before it loses pressure and needs a 'refractory period' - is that not actually the case then?

(Would also take issue with a couple of things in the article. One, having a single motor doesn't explain a lack of regenerative braking - an i3 or new Leaf can regen almost to a stop from a single motor. I assume the real reason is that the Mirai's battery is small and can't take much power, so the result should be the extremely mild regen you get in a Prius.

Second issue is, the article's repeated citing of small, <100-mile EVs as points of comparison. Such cars aren't really sold anymore, the current Leaf will do 140 with ease, but also they were never rivals with the Mirai, which is a large and expensive car. A real rival would be a Tesla, which can match it for range and recharges pretty quickly too, although still some way off 4 minutes for now.)

24 June 2018

 Yes, yes we’re getting there, we have to explore all avenues of providing power for our tiny World and I think Hydrogen has to be one, is important to keep developing, ok, you can argue it take a lot to produce it but it’s cleaner by than others, plus, I think most would prefer the fill at a Pump than plugging in somewhere for 90 minutes as opposed to Hydrogen which like Fossil fuels only takes five minutes,but the real thorn in the Foot is the cost, to have a full on EV or Hydrogen Car isn’t cheap enough yet, not many of us have £25-30,000 to buy one, and there are other polluters, Patio heaters for one, Green House heaters are another, nothing is mentioned or done about them, now if only someone could do Vehicles cheaper..?!

25 June 2018

£25k for a BEV, a HV is valued at £55 (with a grant of £15k would you believe) and costs 6 times more for fuelling than a BEV

24 June 2018

I can't help feeling that Toyota and others are going down a blind alley with hydrogen fuel cell power.


Very surprised the Mirai is incapable of regenerative braking, a major failing methinks.


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