A new law created to avoid a repeat of Volkswagen Group’s diesel emissions scandal has been approved by the European Union (EU).
This gives its independent regulatory arm, the European Commission, more authority over the approval of car models across Europe.
It can now fine manufacturers up to €30,000 (£26,240 at today’s exchange rate) for each faulty vehicle and order recalls for models, reports Automotive News Europe.
The reform also means vehicle manufacturers must disclose software procedures, as the Commission seeks to tackle cheating technology such as that used by Volkswagen.
The legislation was passed this week by the European Parliament and makes the Commission more akin to the US's Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
The move is one of the severest reactions to Dieselgate since the scandal broke in 2015.
The other major change in Europe since that time is the move to more realistic emissions testing, culminating in the introduction of the Worldwide Harmonised Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP) to replace the NEDC test.
Although WLTP is a laboratory-based procedure, it more closely resembles how a car is driven in the real world compared to its predecessor. A real-world driving test, Real Driving Emissions (RDE) complements the WLTP and is carried out on a variety of roads.