The new series for electric-powered single-seater racing cars begins in Beijing tomorrow, and leading racer Sam Bird tells us about the challenges
Matt Burt
12 September 2014

The impact of Formula E, the new electric car racing series that begins on the streets of Beijing this Saturday, probably won’t be appreciated for years to come.

If in the future we get to enjoy, say, a 400-mile range from electric road cars, or get to marvel at the sustained performance of battery-powered supercars, we might then reflect on how electric motor racing has contributed to the advancement of EV technology. 

The brains behind this series want Formula E to do for EVs what rallying did for four-wheel drive systems: provide a high-speed test bed for the technology that can then trickle down into road cars. 

Racing, the saying goes, improves the breed, and the Formula E breed is a 20-strong grid of open-wheeled, rear-wheel-drive single-seaters powered by electric motors producing the equivalent of 270bhp.

But although Formula E is doing things very differently, it is relying on some long-established motorsport companies to ensure that it starts on the right footing.

The chassis, constructed by Spark Racing Technologies in conjunction with Dallara, uses technology from McLaren (which supplies the e-motor), Hewland (a five-speed paddle-shift sequential gearbox) and Williams (the rechargeable energy storage system). 

Michelin has created a bespoke 18-inch treaded tyre based on road car rubber. Renault, meanwhile, oversees the integration of these systems in its role as the championship’s technical partner.

Formula E has attracted some major backers and entrants, such as DHL, Virgin, Mahindra and Audi. It has even pulled in A-list celebrities; actor Leonardo DiCaprio is a founder of one team, Venturi.

The driver line-up is high profile, too, with former F1 drivers Bruno Senna, Jaime Alguersuari, Nick Heidfeld, Nelson Piquet Jr and Jarno Trulli all on the grid.

Among the British competitors is Sam Bird, who has secured a drive at Virgin Racing alongside Alguersuari. Bird has raced in most of the single-seater championships below F1 and has tested top-flight cars for Mercedes, as well as being shortlisted for the McLaren Autosport BRDC Young Driver of the Year Award.

Formula E's pre-season testing has given him a fair idea of what to expect, but he nevertheless admits that Saturday’s inaugural race will be a step into the unknown.

“Everybody has become quite good at race runs around Donington Park, where we’ve done all our testing,” says the 27-year-old. “We have an idea of the circuit layout in Beijing, but until we get there, we don’t know about the roughness of the surface, how wide the track is, or whether we’ll have kerbs, barriers or both.”

Bird believes that the main technical challenge for the competitors will be metering out the available battery power over the course of each part of the race.

“We have 28 kilowatts per hour of energy that we can use in each car during the race period,” he explains. “It’s about using that to the best of your ability to get the most pace out of the car but still conserve the battery so it lasts that distance. There are many strategies we tried during testing. Some have worked and others haven’t.”

As in F1, power and energy management are key. The cars run at maximum power (equivalent to 270bhp) during practice and qualifying, but they are capped at 202bhp in race trim. The Spark-Renault SRT_01E uses regenerative braking to harvest energy, and this presents yet another variable.

“The strength of the regeneration depends on how much battery percentage you currently have,” says Bird. “As the battery percentage goes down, the strength of the regeneration goes up, which then changes your brake bias. So when you’re doing 130mph on a street circuit and trying to overtake somebody, you have to think about all this. It keeps you on your toes.”

Mid-race car changes – another aspect of Formula E that racing purists have struggled to get their heads around – pose an additional challenge. In Formula E’s first season, it’s a necessity to allow races to last for one hour, and the novel concept is something that the teams have had to practice.

Bird says: “We have an allotted time to do the pit stops. With me jumping out of one car and into another, we can change cars in about 30 seconds, but then we have to sit and wait for another period of time before we’re allowed to go.”

Fans are waiting to discover whether a grid of battery-powered single-seaters can provide the kind of all-round assault on the senses that they are accustomed to from other racing series, but Bird thinks that the format will hold plenty of appeal.

“The car isn’t the fastest single-seater in the world, but it is responsive and the torque is continuous throughout the rev range. There’s quite a lot of weight towards the rear and you’ll see that the cars move around quite a lot. You can get quite a lot of oversteer,” he says.

“There is also a cool motor noise. It’s very futuristic. The sound was apparent at Donington, which is a fairly open circuit, so when there are 20 of them in close proximity to each other around a closed-in street track, I think it will be louder than people expect.”

Formula E is condensing practice, qualifying and racing into a single day. This poses challenges for the teams, who need to quickly find an optimum set-up.

“You can make the kinds of set-up changes that are fairly typical of a one-make single-seater championship: geometry, roll bar and spring changes, things like that,” explains Bird.

“Aerodynamic changes to the wings make more of a difference than we initially thought. It is quite important to raise or lower the wing levels between qualifying and the race; extra drag means more battery energy is used.”

In its inaugural season, Formula E is a one-chassis category using standard technology, although there are plans to loosen the regulations in future years to allow teams to develop their own cars and systems.

“One of the main things that excites me is the fact that this kind of technology is going to be very important for the automotive industry in the future,” says Bird. 

“If we can get car manufacturers on board with specific teams and drivers to help them perform at a better level, maybe that technology will filter down straight on to production lines of road cars. 

“What we use now is quite a large battery, but where are we going to be in five or 10 years? The batteries could be half the size, double the power and twice the endurance of what they have now. We don’t know; that’s what makes it exciting. The only certainty is that the technology is only going to get better.” 

The 2014/15 FIA Formula E Championship calendar

13 September 2014 - Beijing, China

22 November 2014 - Putrajaya, Malaysia

13 December 2014 - Punta del Este, Uruguay

10 January 2015 - Buenos Aires, Argentina

14 February 2015 - TBA

14 March 2015 - Miami, USA

4 April 2015 - Long Beach, USA

9 May 2015 - Monte Carlo, Monaco

30 May 2015 - Berlin, Germany

27 June 2015 - London, UK

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Our Verdict

Renault Zoe

Bespoke battery-powered supermini aims to advance the EV’s case

12 September 2014
Glad to know that the Formula E broadcast rights in the UK are with ITV. BBC would've been even better - no ads - but at least those of us without subscriptions to sports channels will be able to enjoy the full season!

12 September 2014
I imagine the technique will be to slipstream like crazy in the midfield to conserve battery power, then deploy everything on the last lap to try and win. I predict plenty of last lap crashes if the whole field attempts this, so I'll definitely be watching the first race!

12 September 2014
This is one of the three pillars of Formula-E but it is slightly farcical that in order to complete a race distance drivers have to pit and jump into an identical car with a fresh battery in order to complete a race distance.

This unfortunate requirement mirrors that of current EV road cars, another vehicle is needed to complete a long journey as battery performance is not yet where it should be. Duplicating equipment is at odds with the environmental message.

Having said that, battery performance will improve with a series like this but it's unfortunate they couldn't begin 'fully formed'..


12 September 2014
Agree with bomb's comment that it's daft to have two cars (though Moto GP have the same arrangement when it rains during a race). Would have been better to have shorter races given that I suspect most of the action will take lace at the end of each race anyway.
I wonder whether the whole field will stop for a "new" car at exactly 30 minutes - leaving a pause in the proceedings - or whether some cars will run to 35 or so minutes, so that the second car can be run harder? All will be revealed tomorrow no doubt.

12 September 2014
I'm really looking forward to watching this. I know current battery technology imposes restrictions on the racing, but racing has always been known to advance the technology and this filters down to road cars. Hopefully this will also improve the image of electric vehicles and make the more desirable. Range, price and choice will still put most people off. It's certainly holding me back at the moment.
Bring on the racing!!

"Why is http://www.nanoflowcell.com not getting more media attention? It could be the future... Now!"

12 September 2014
Usually, to get the best out of the actual race, it is best nowadays to watch one on TV thanks to the multiple camera angles. Being at the track is really only an exercise of the other senses and the sense of occasion which I think will be lacking in Formula E. However, as it is cheaper than buying a ticket, schleping to the circuit, buying souvenirs and overpriced food and drink, this is quite a satisfactory arrangement.

12 September 2014
Couldn't they prepare one for the photoshoot?

12 September 2014
and has been said, nice to see it on terrestrial TV :-) Not sure comparing with 4x4 will please backers as 35 years after the Quattro 4x4 is hardly common place today. Hopefully the TV producers will not copy F1 and feel obliged to give equal air time to every car on the grid. Watching the battle for 19 th place 2 laps from the end is not good.

13 September 2014
I'm sure you could work out the numbers but I'd think at least 10% of the cars sold this year were available with a 4x4 system, and it wouldn't surprise me if it were 20% or more. Of course, most people don't need it and sensibly opt not to lug around the extra weight for no reason.

Formula E looks interesting, but posting the article more than 24 hours before the broadcast would have been nice.

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