Set to compete in the World Series by Renault championship from next year, the £282,000 RS 01 is powered by the same 3.8-litre twin-turbocharged V6 engine as the Nissan GT-R.
Renault says peak power is more than 493bhp, with maximum torque of 443lb ft. In the GT-R, the same engine produces 542bhp and 465lb ft.
Changes made to the engine include the fitting of a new dry sump system – designed to stop oil surges during long corners on a racetrack. The longitudinally mounted seven-speed sequential transmission drives the rear wheels and is controlled via steering-wheel mounted paddles.
While a 0-62mph sprint time and top speed have yet to be revealed, Renault says the RS 01 will be between a GT3 sports car and DTM racer in terms of performance.
Developed around a motorsports tub designed and built by Dallara, the closed-cockpit RS 01 features a carbonfibre monocoque structure and weighs less than 1100kg A 150-litre fuel tank is also fitted, with the entire structure complying to FIA LMP1 regulations.
The car measures 4710mm long by 2000mm wide, with a height of 1116mm and a wheelbase of 2744mm.
Stopping power is provided by 380mm carbonfibre disc brakes with six-piston calipers. The RS 01 is fitted with bespoke alloy wheels shod in specially developed 18-inch Michelin rubber.
Other performance modifications include adjustable dampers and a limited-slip differential. A double-wishbone suspension setup is used at the front and rear.
A prominent Renaultsport logo features at the front, alongside LED daytime running lights, a large grille and prominent lower splitter. At the rear is a large rear diffuser as well as twin exhaust exits and LED lights.
Renault says the design of the racer was inspired both by the DeZir, a gullwinged concept car unveiled at the Paris motor show in 2010, and by the Renault Etoile Filante – a land speed record car which topped 186mph at the Bonneville Salt Flats in 1956.
Speaking at the launch of the car at the Moscow motor show, Renault design chief Laurens van den Acker said: "We wanted the car to be an extreme interpretation of Renault's sporting attitudes. It is a car that sums up all of Renault's expertise in motorsport."
The RS 01 will be eligible to take part in the Renaultsport Trophy, a single-make championship run as part of the World Series by Renault package. The series takes place over nine rounds at tracks including Monza, Spa-Francorchamps and the Nürburgring.