While a handful of countries are well on their way to electric-only new car sales, others remain almost entirely reliant on petrol and diesel and plenty more lie somewhere in between.
Autocar has examined the policies, plans and infrastructure of nine markets to see how key nations differ in their approaches to electrification. These are the results.
Subsidies: €4000 (£3350) for new EVs costing up to €45,000 (£38,000) and €2000 (£1700) for used EVs.
Infrastructure: Around 75,000 public and 180,000 private chargers (as of July).
Interesting fact: It has 47.5 chargers per 100km (62 miles) – the most in Europe.
Second only to Norway as the most pro-EV nation, the Dutch’s 2030 new car ICE sales ban looks substantially more realistic than the UK’s. It has Europe’s densest charging network and plentiful tax breaks for EVs and penalties for ICE cars. Plug-in hybrids and FCEVs had a 24.8% market share in 2020.
Subsidies: No purchase grants but BEVs are exempt from VAT and purchase/import tax. Heaps of other benefits, too.
Infrastructure: More than 16,000 public chargers.
Interesting fact: EVs have been allowed to drive in bus lanes since 2005.
Norway sets the global standard for EV adoption. Plug-ins took almost 75% of new car sales in 2020, 54% of which were BEVs – the highest of any country. It plans to phase out new ICE cars by 2025, which seems likely to happen, given the swathes of financial incentives, the earliest of which – no purchase/import tax – was introduced in 1990.
Subsidies: Up to $7500 (£5575) federal tax credit for plug-in cars. Plans are in place to raise this to $12,500 (£9300) for EVs built by American union workers. Incentives vary by state.
Infrastructure: Some 43,000 public chargers.
Interesting fact: California has almost the same number of chargers as the 39 states with the lowest counts combined.
The American approach to EVs fluctuates hugely by state. The federal government has provided tax credits since 2010 and 40 of the 50 states have plug-in-friendly policies, with California leading. EVs took 1.7% of sales in 2020. Congress wants that to be 50% in 2030 and to have 500,000 chargers.